Flipped Learning General Resource - Review and consider possibilities
Last updated on 21/10/2019
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Flipping inverts the notion of traditional educational models of delivery, information processing and sequencing. In this model, students gain 'first exposure' to class materials out of class.
On a practical level, traditional lecture-type content is delivered external to 'active' class time, essentially replacing time allocated previously to study or homework. This might include assigning instructional content in a variety of formats (online tutorials, videos, podcasts, learning objects, etc.) prior to an on-campus or online 'Tutorial' or any student-student interaction. This person-to-person time is then aligned with 'application' type activities based on Active Learning strategies such as problem-solving, debates or similar. This is where learning, knowledge assimilation and retention can be further enhanced by Instructor/peer-to-peer interactions, and immediate feedback.
Some considerations with Flipped Learning involve the following:
- Greater control over pace/quantity and repetition of instruction for students
- Instructors become 'guides' rather than 'speakers'
- Provides 'just in time' and 'point of need' interaction and greater opportunities for retention
- The responsibility for learning is on students, Instructors become 'guides'
- Distinct move from 'transmission' to strengthening student skills
- Greater opportunities to increase the attainment of Griffith Graduate Attributes
The "Flip Matrix" below lists key elements to the flipped learning approach, adapted from Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching.
|1. Provide an opportunity for students to gain first exposure prior to class.||Provide engaging lecture material and resources online. Capture, create or curate primary resources.|
|2. Provide an incentive for students to prepare for class.||Align a small amount of marks to designated pre-class activities. For example, a quiz, submission, or blog /discussion post about the first exposure content, provided it adheres to Assessment Policy.|
|3.Provide a mechanism to assess student understanding.||
Pre-class, automated quizzes assigned as 'incentives' above can be used to inform in-class interaction.
Informal 'checks' via Pop-quiz in class time with real-time visualisation can help provide an adaptive teaching approach.
|4. Provide in-class activities that focus on higher-level cognitive activities.||Use Active Learning strategies in class-time, online or on-campus. The key here is that class time is focussed on deepening understanding, and increase the ability to apply that knowledge.|
Flipping can be seen as an essential component or element of other active pedagogical and practiced models spanning well over a decade. In 1998, Humanities Academics Barbara Walvoord and Virginia Johnson Anderson promoted the approach in their book Effective Grading when they outlined a first-exposure learning concept, where students are exposed to materials prior to class and focus on the processing part of learning (synthesizing, analysing, problem-solving, etc.) in class.
A similar approach was described in 2000 by Economics when Academics Lage, Platt and Treglia coined the term 'Inverted Classroom'. The very next year Mazur and Crouch (2001) presented a modified form termed 'Peer Instruction'. In the most current context, the idea of a 'flipped classroom' is linked to the work of Jonathon Bergmann and Aaron Sams, who first started using online video (via Khan Academy) as a strategy supporting re-allocation of 'lab time' interaction for their students.
The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P Checklist
To engage in Flipped Learning, teachers must incorporate the following four pillars into their practice.
Flipped Learning Network
Provides a great checklist based around four essential pillars required to successfully flip.
Flipped Classroom Trends: A Survey of College Faculty
Using technology to enable flipped classrooms whilst sustaining sound pedagogy
30th ASCILITE Conference, 2013. Proceedings, Michael D. Sankey and Lynne Hunt
Creative Commons Licenses for Flipped Educators
Five Best Practices for the Flipped Classroom
Educdemic: The Teacher’s Guide to Flipped Classrooms
8 Outstanding iPad Apps to Create Tutorials and Flip your classroom
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Flipped Learning. Retrieved from https://app.secure.griffith.edu.au/exlnt/entry/3805/view(2019).